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RESEARCH ON AIR POLLUTION IN NIGERIA


RESEARCH ON AIR POLLUTION IN NIGERIA
Unconsciously or consciously, we emit polluted air everyday arising from our daily activities. Newer and strange diseases arises every day from unclean air we inhale from time to time. Every year we keep experiencing temperature change leading to heat wave from the various emissions that are hitting the ozone layers. From the rate at which emissions are rising, we have fewer years to act than we think. Air pollution has been recognized as a silent killer and increases risk of terminal diseases those eventually leading causes of climate change crisis we are faced with. The rate of death recorded every year arising from air pollution is alarming; 4.2million of death every year as a result of exposure to ambient air pollution and 3.8 million deaths as a result of household exposure to smoke from dirty cookstoves and fuels. This is a call for change in behavioral pattern for the transition to clean energy sources we desire to happen. 
AIR QUALITY INDEX-OZONE
AQI
Health
301-500
Hazardous
201-300
Very unhealthy
151-200
Unhealthy
101-150
Unhealthy for sensitive group
51-100
Moderate
0-50
Good

Hazardous is 301 to 500: The entire population is more likely to experience serious health effects and should avoid all outdoor exertion.
Very unhealthy is 201 to 300: everyone may experience more serious health effects and should avoid all outdoor exertion.
Unhealthy is 151 to 200: everyone may begin to experience some adverse health effects and should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.
Unhealthy for sensitive groups is 101 to 150: people with health and long disease, older adults and children are at a greater risk and should limit prolonged outdoor exertion.
Moderate is 51 to 100: people who have unique sensitivity to air pollution should consider limiting prolonged outdoor exertion.
Good is 0 to 50: no health impacts are expected when air quality is in this range.
STATE
AQI
HEALTH
PM10
PM2.5
Aba
416
Hazardous
373
49
Abakaliki
168
Unhealthy
88
28
Afikpo
159
Unhealthy
72
25
Enugu
182
Unhealthy
115
15
Ile-Ife
175
Unhealthy
103
26
Kaduna
449
Hazardous
423
90
Nnewi
151
Unhealthy
57
24
Nsukka
183
Unhealthy
117
14
Onitsha
500
Hazardous
594
66
Orlu
142
Unhealthy for sensitive group
52
16
Owerri
208
Very unhealthy
158
44
Umuahia
324
Hazardous
274
40
Source: WHO
These four states (Aba, Kaduna, Onisha and Umuahia) with indication of hazardous air quality, implies that outbreak of disease can spring out from such states with prevalence occurrence of newer diseases among the residence in such areas. This show that, every breathe contains unhealthy particles and that can shorten the life of a child born today by 20months on an average according to the study on the state of global air. These states exceed the guideline for PM10 by 37times, 42times, 59times and 27times in Aba, Kaduna, Onitsha and Umuahia respectively. The life of people living in this state are greatly endangered as this particles can be cancerous to their lung. This is in accordance to WHO report of 2016, stating that Onitsha, Kaduna, Aba and Umuahia were among four of the 20 African cities with the worst air quality in the world.
While Owerri (Capital of Imo) have a very unhealthy air quality, exceeding the PM10 by 15 times. This health situation can have a great impact on the health of the people.
Also, the LGA and state (Abakaliki, Afikpo, Enugu, Ile-Ife, Nnewi and Nsukka) with unhealthy air quality reveal the health condition of people living in such area. It exceed the guideline for PM10 by 8times, by7times, by 11 times, 10times, by 5times, by 11times in Abakaliki, Afikpo, Enugu, Ile-Ife, Nnewi and Nsukka respectively.This people are most likely to experience one health issue or the other with high level of vulnerability to diseases of all kind.
Another LGA (Orlu), have an air quality condition that is unhealthy for sensitive people, such as; people with asthma, heart diseases, children and adult.
            Therefore, in these states and LGAs mentioned, all exceed(overshoot) the standard  for WHO, hence demand quick attention. This is an indication that there exist air pollution emergencies but yet to be declared and acted upon. From these findings, most states in Nigeria AQI and PM cannot be reached resulting from lack of data collection by appropriate agencies. Hence, the higher the air quality index, the higher the vulnerability of residents exposure to various disease. Also, the higher the PM, the greater the risk of people to particles that are cancerous. According to the finding by WHO in 2016 “the air people breathe in Nigeria is more likely to cause harm than the air in any other country  in Africa because Nigeria currently has the highest (4th globally) in the world with 150 deaths per 100,000 people attributable to pollution” From this statement, I can conclude that all states in Nigeria are guilty of air pollution. Air pollution is a silent killer and a threat to human existence.

Compiled by OLADOSU ADENIKE ([email protected]

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